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While waiting for the official start of Congress, James Madison presented his first draft, which became known as the “Virginia Plan,” reflecting his views as a strong nationalist. By the time the rest of the Virginia delegation arrived, most of the Pennsylvania delegation had arrived. Delegates agreed with Madison that the executive function should be independent of the legislature. In their aversion to royal power, American lawmakers had created state governments in which the executive branch was obliged to legislate, and by the late 1780s this was widely seen as a source of paralysis. The Swiss government was the ultimate example. The Detail Committee was a committee founded on September 23. In June 1787, it was created by the United States Constitutional Convention to present a draft text reflecting the agreements reached by the Convention so far, including the 15 resolutions of the Virginia Plan. It was led by John Rutledge, and other members included Edmund Randolph, Oliver Ellsworth, James Wilson, and Nathaniel Gorham. The three-fifths compromise was a compromise between the southern and northern states reached at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, in which three-fifths of the enumerated slave population was counted for representation purposes both in terms of tax distribution and the distribution of members of the U.S. House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman. It was eventually adopted by the Convention. 10.
It was decided that the admission of states that are legally born within the borders of the United States, whether from a voluntary link between the government and the territory in another way, with the consent of a certain number of votes in the national legislature, which are inferior to the whole, should be provided. Variations also suggested that state governments should be sworn to support the articles, that a policy for dealing with territorial disputes should be established, and that crimes considered treason should be defined.  The terms of office were not specified, but the executive and members of the legislative chamber elected by the people could not be elected for an indefinite period thereafter. The legislature would have the power to deny state laws if they were found to be inconsistent with union articles. The concept of checks and balances has been enshrined in a provision according to which a council composed of members of the executive and selected members of the judiciary may veto legislative acts. An unspecified legislative majority could override his veto. Several plans have been submitted to the Convention. James Madison`s plan, known as the Virginia Plan, was the most important plan.
The Virginia Plan was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislature. Before the convention began, delegates from Virginia met and came up with a plan largely based on Madison`s proposals. In his proposal, the two chambers of the legislature would be determined proportionately. The House of Commons would be elected by the people and the House of Lords would be elected by the House of Commons. The executive exists only to ensure that the will of the legislator is implemented and therefore chosen by the legislator. Small states with smaller populations argued that such an arrangement would lead to unjust domination of the large states in the government of the new nation, and that each state should have equal representation, regardless of its population. 14. Decided that the legislative and judicial powers of the various States should be bound by oath to support the articles of the Union. The proportional power imbalance in favor of small states in the Senate means that interests in those states, such as mining in West Virginia or hog farming in Iowa, are more likely to receive attention — and money — from federal coffers. One of the most pressing issues during the first debate was the election of the President. Few people agreed with Madison that the executive branch should be elected by the legislature.
Direct elections were largely concerned because information was spreading so slowly in the late eighteenth century and because they feared that people would only vote for candidates from their state or region. A vocal minority wanted the national executive to be elected by state governors. The Federalist Papers, a series of eighty-five anonymously published newspaper essays, were actually written to defend the Constitution by James Madison (1751–1836), John Jay (1745–1829), and Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804). In this essay, Hamilton opens his argument for strong executive power with: “The election of the president is fairly well guarded. I dare to go a little further; and hesitate to confirm that if the path is not perfect, it is at least excellent. It combines all the benefits to an excellent extent; whose union was left to be desired. This collected volume belonged to and was annotated by James Madison. William Paterson`s Plan for New Jersey proposed a unicameral legislature with equal state votes and an executive elected by a national legislature.
This plan maintained the form of government under the Articles of Confederation and added powers to generate revenue and regulate trade and foreign affairs. James Madison commented on Paterson`s proposed plan in his diary, which he held during the proceedings. Madison`s notes, which he refined each night, became the most important contemporary recording of the convention`s debates. Several well-known founders did not participate in the Constitutional Convention. Thomas Jefferson was abroad and served as a minister in France. John Adams was in Britain and was a minister of that country, but he wrote home to encourage the delegates. Patrick Henry refused to participate because he “smelled of a rat in Philadelphia tending towards monarchy.” John Hancock and Samuel Adams were also absent. Many older and more experienced leaders of states may have simply been too busy to attend the convention. One of the most controversial issues faced by delegates was slavery. Slavery was widespread in states at the time of the Convention.
Twenty-five of the convention`s 55 delegates owned slaves, including all delegates from Virginia and South Carolina. The question of whether slavery should be regulated by the new constitution was a matter of such intense conflict between north and south that several southern states refused to join the Union if slavery was not allowed. In May 1787 the 55 delegates to the United States Constitutional Convention went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Traveling in the late 18th century was not easy, and what would only take modern Americans a few hours lasted the weeks of the Founding Fathers. Delegates from New Hampshire were particularly unlucky and didn`t come to the convention until mid-July, after it had already met for two months! Although many Founding Fathers took notes on the Constitutional Convention, James Madison`s were the most detailed of all. Historians know most of what they do with what happened at the convention thanks to Madison`s meticulous comments during the 100 days. Several plans were presented to the Constitutional Convention. Topics of discussion included the composition of the Senate, how to define “proportional representation,” whether the executive would consist of one or three people, the term of the president and the nature of the election, accusable offenses, a short-lived slavery clause, the abolition of the slave trade, and whether judges should be elected by the legislature or executive branches.